Kidney transplant is a long-term solution for kidney failure patients. Those with kidney failure need dialysis to continue their lives. Because the blood needs to be filtered to get rid of foreign substances. This is possible mechanically only with dialysis. Patients should undergo dialysis once or more than once a week, depending on their condition. It is a tiring and time-consuming treatment for these patients. In addition, the condition of patients may worsen as they undergo dialysis. Therefore, if appropriate, kidney transplantation is very effective. In this article, necessary information is given about those who are curious about kidney transplantation, what should be done after kidney transplantation and the risks.
What is Kidney Transplantation?
Kidney transplantation is a surgical method applied for the treatment of kidney failure disease. Every organ has vital importance for the human body. Because organs work in cooperation and ensure the continuation of life. In this cooperation, each organ has a different task. The kidneys filter the waste materials in the blood and excrete them with urine. It also helps to maintain the body’s fluid and electrolyte balance. When these wastes cannot be removed, they accumulate in the body and cause some diseases. People whose kidneys have failed and become inoperable need a treatment called dialysis. The purpose of dialysis is to remove foreign substances accumulated in the blood. This process mechanically filters the waste that accumulates in the bloodstream as the kidneys stop working. However, the patient has to devote a lot of time to dialysis and it is a tiring method for patients. Kidney transplantation is the most effective treatment method to provide a permanent cure. In order for the transplantation to take place, a healthy kidney is taken from a living or dead individual with which the tissues are matched and transplanted to the patient. Thus, the patient is freed from dialysis and can return to his previous active life. However, finding a suitable kidney is not always enough. If the patient with kidney failure has active infections and is very overweight, transplantation may not be considered appropriate. The purpose of transplantation is to take the healthy kidney and place it in the patient’s body. After the transplant, the patient can return to a healthy life, but some immunosuppressive drugs must be used so that the immune system does not reject the kidney.
Who Needs Kidney Transplantation?
Kidney transplantation is a method applied for individuals whose kidneys have completely stopped working, that is, bankruptcy. Most of the patients who have already reached this stage receive dialysis treatment. Every patient undergoing dialysis is asked their opinion on whether they have had a kidney transplant. Patients who want to have a kidney transplant are placed in a certain queue and if their turn comes and a suitable kidney is found, the transplant is done. After kidney transplantation, some drugs are used for life. However, patients who have undergone transplantation should be very careful about nutrition. If the doctor’s instructions are not strictly followed, the transplanted kidney is at risk. Transplant status can be risky and vital for cancer patients or patients who have recovered from cancer treatment, bone infections, hepatitis infections, severe cardiovascular diseases and liver diseases. Therefore, even if the patient has kidney failure, it may not be suitable for transplantation. Because the fact that the patient will be taken to a serious operation is obvious. The individual must meet all the conditions in order to successfully survive this heavy surgery and regain his health. Kidney transplantation can be applied to patients with kidney failure who meet all the conditions and are healthy enough.
How is Kidney Transplant Performed?
The answer to the question of how a kidney transplant is done varies depending on the donor’s condition. If the individual from whom a healthy kidney will be taken has died, kidney transplantation should be planned immediately. Because the removal of kidneys from deceased patients is usually the result of a fatal accident. This means that there is a short period of time for the organ not to lose its health. If the tissue is compatible, the patient to be transplanted needs to be prepared for surgery suddenly. Only in this way will the transfer be possible. If the donor is a healthy individual, the operation can be planned together with the patient and the donor. Primarily, some antibody tests are performed for tissue and organ compatibility. If the result is compatible, there will be no obstacle to kidney transplantation. General anesthesia is given to the patient to perform the surgery. After anesthesia, a healthy kidney is placed in the recipient’s body through an incision in the abdomen. All arteries and veins are then connected to the body. After the successful placement of the organ in the body, blood flow from the kidney begins. After that, the ureter of the healthy kidney is connected to the bladder and the patient becomes able to urinate in a healthy way. The other kidney, which is unhealthy, is left in the body if it does not cause blood pressure or infection in the body. Kidney transplant is a very important operation. Therefore, there are some risks of kidney transplant. The patient may have an allergic reaction to general anesthesia. Bleeding during surgery is also among the risky situations that can be experienced. In addition, the formation of blood clots in the organ connected to the body, leakage from the ureter or obstruction of the ureter are among the possible risks. Some infections may also occur after surgery. Failure of the transplant due to the rejection of the transplanted kidney by the immune system is also among the risks. The patient should accept the transplant operation by considering all these risks.
What Are the Risks of Kidney Transplantation for the Donor?
Since kidney transplantation is an important operation, there are some risks for both the recipient and the donor. A person who voluntarily becomes a kidney donor is very valuable both by the patient and by the doctors. Because, thanks to the person who volunteers, a patient regains his health. Many medical tests are performed for the donor and all data are analyzed in detail. It is then approved by a council of physicians. In other words, it is not possible for a physician to make the decision of an individual to be a donor alone. As with any surgery, it is not guaranteed to be 100% healthy for both the donor and the recipient after a kidney transplant. Because researches have proven that the risk of death in kidney transplant operations is 1 in 3000. Along with the risk of urinary tract infection, the risk of wound infection is also possible. However, these risks are at the same rate as any other surgery. For a few days following the surgery, the donor’s body will be sore. Depending on the donor’s condition, the donor is discharged from the hospital within 5 days. In a small proportion of patients, pain may occur at the surgery site 1 year later. After 2 months after the surgery, the individual returns to all normal activities. He can lift heavy or do sports. The donor can lead a healthy life by having regular check-ups after the transplant surgery.
What Should Be Done After the Transplant?
After the transplant, the patient stays in the hospital for about 1 week. The purpose of this is to intervene immediately in the complications that may occur, thus protecting the health of both the patient and the kidney. Usually, urination starts immediately after the transplant, but it may take a short time for the kidney to filter the blood. For this reason, it may be possible for the patient to undergo dialysis several times after transplantation. After the 8th week following the transplant, the patient is expected to return to his normal life. After the transplant, the patient should have regular check-ups. Thus, it is evaluated whether the kidney and the patient’s health are in place. After the operation, analyzes and tests are quite frequent. For this reason, it may be necessary to reside in a place close to the operation center for a while. After a kidney transplant, some medications are prescribed to prevent the body from rejecting the kidney. These drugs must be used for life. Otherwise, the body may suddenly reject the kidney and the patient’s condition may worsen. These drugs also reduce the risk of infection after the operation.
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See more information please visit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kidney_transplantation
Bibliography : https://www.medicalpark.com.tr/bobrek-nakli/hg-2533